In this era of misinformation and untruths, plagiarism has become a significant problem, abetted by a surge in options for students to cut corners, including growing numbers of online essay-writing services (“paper mills” or “essay mills”) and increasing online content from which to cut and paste.
Whether they entirely cut-and-pasted from one source with no or few alternations, used a combination of short cut-and-pasted sections from multiple sources, or copied from a source and then modified by replacing words with synonyms, students are claiming someone else’s writing and ideas as their own and not providing attribution.
Recent data about plagiarism and paper mills is concerning. There are more than 1,000 paper mills in existence. Students can easily request ghostwriters or connect with paper mills.
The percentage of students who admit to cheating ranges between 50 percent and 90 percent (the percentage varies in different studies). A recent study of 24 leading UK universities documents a dramatic 30 percent increase in academic misconduct cases between 2014-15 and 2016-17.
So, what can college instructors do? In our own visual and cultural studies courses at Cerritos College, we have found that insisting on a culture of integrity in the classroom has helped to curtail incidents of plagiarism. Because we prioritize academic integrity in our classrooms, our students come to value honesty. Near semester’s end, few students dare to plagiarize. Throughout our courses, we encourage self-expression and students come to appreciate their voices being heard.
To achieve this, we have changed the design of our assignments to increase student confidence in their writing through practice and feedback. Instead of assigning one substantial research project, we divide it into smaller tasks over the course of the semester, enabling students to develop their own ideas through multiple low-stakes assignments. We build towards a final research paper through preliminary assignments, such as an annotated bibliography, outline and thesis statement, and rough draft so students receive feedback and refine their writing, research and citation skills.
We require students to submit each assignment through the plagiarism-detection software Turnitin. This software includes built-in grading features and automatic grammar, spelling and style-checking features, so students can receive feedback more quickly and we can streamline our grading processes.
With full-time California community college instructors teaching five classes each semester, the automatic checks provided by plagiarism-detection software help provide more feedback to students. Students become more informed and confident writers by reviewing their similarity score (their similarity to available online content), grammatical and spelling errors, as well as individualized feedback from the instructor.
We conduct in-class writing workshops, critiquing assignments and discussing as a class how to synthesize research into original analysis and how to give credit to research sources. These workshops are helpful in developing writing skills since the desire to plagiarize often comes out of insecurity and lack of writing skills. These workshops hold students accountable for the originality of their writing not only by us but also by their peers. This technique does not focus on penalizing but rather on instructing how to write responsibly and ethically.
Despite these efforts, a few students still submit written assignments created by copying portions of Wikipedia articles, blog posts and freely available online essays. Living in a culture that blurs fiction and truth, these students are often unaware of the illegality of their actions or do not feel shamed by cheating because of contemporary society’s lack of ethical standards. We work individually with these students.
First-time plagiarism usually results in zero points on the assignment and the opportunity to make up points through a rewrite. For repeat offenders, the plagiarism-detection software makes it easier to track and document their plagiarism. At Cerritos College, our options following an incident of plagiarism include: reprimand, a grade reduction, requiring that the work by redone, or referral to the Office of Judicial Affairs.
We emphasize the importance of original writing to help students develop confidence and personal integrity because these traits can help them no matter their academic or career goals. In a world where these traits seem to be in short supply, these lessons are more essential than ever.
Lisa Boutin-Vitela is assistant professor and Julie Trager is professor in the Art and Design department at Cerritos College in Norwalk, California. Trager and Boutin-Vitela are partners in starting the “Let’s Write and Turn It On” campus-wide initiative to emphasize the importance of integrity, writing and technology at Cerritos College.
Many colleges and universities now offer online courses, either as part of their normal curriculum, or as free classes available to the public. Sites like Coursera and edX bundle many of these classes together, making it easy to find information on almost any topic you can imagine.
But as a student, how can you tell which of these courses are worth taking, and which ones to avoid?
Strengths and Weaknesses of Online Courses
First, you should be aware of the inherent strengths and weaknesses of online courses in general:
Most students who gravitate toward online courses do so because of their convenience. Many don’t have set hours—instead you can watch lectures and do homework at your own pace, so long as you’re available to take exams.
Online courses are oftentimes (though not always) less expensive than in-person courses. This makes them a viable alternative for students trying to save money, or graduate with less debt.
Social opportunities. Unfortunately, online classes also have fewer opportunities for social interactions. That means you won’t have access to as many study groups, or the interactive discussions you might otherwise have in class.
Individual help. Online courses sometimes involve dozens, if not hundreds of people. That means your professor won’t have the time or inclination to give you one-on-one help. If you get stuck on a given subject, you might be on your own.
If you have the option to take an in-person course for the same time and monetary costs, it’s likely worth it. Otherwise, you’ll have to balance the time and cost savings with the necessary sacrifices associated with online classes.
Authority and Certification
Next, consider the authority and certification of the offering party of each online course. If you’re taking an online class through your main university, you shouldn’t have to worry about this. Otherwise, you’ll need to do some due diligence.
Start by investigating the university or organization offering the course. If you recognize the name, that’s a good sign. Otherwise, look for online reviews and how prestigious or accomplished the university is. It shouldn’t take long before you have a clear indication of the organization’s value.
Next, consider whether the online course is certified by a third-party organization. For example, Quality Matters (QM) certifies online courses for their course design, and since 2006 has certified more than 6,000 individual courses.
You may also want to evaluate the lecturer or professor associated with each course. A quick Google search should help you verify the authority’s credentials, and whether they’re truly an expert on the subject. You may also be able to find samples of their public speaking or educational abilities.
Cost and Value
Even if a course appears to be offered by a high authority and a prestigious organization, that doesn’t mean it’s worth the cost. Free courses are tempting, since you might think the cost is zero, but you also have to consider how many hours you’ll spend watching videos, taking quizzes, and studying. The total cost of an online course will be the total monetary price and the total number of hours you’re going to spend on it.
There are many factors to consider here. Having a degree, or a professional certification will, on average, net you a higher average salary over the course of your lifetime. If you aren’t getting a formal degree or certification, the ultimate value of the course may be lower. You may also consider practical skills you take away from the course—for example, if you become skilled in repairing bicycles, you may not only have more job opportunities at bike repair shops, but you’ll save money on your own bike maintenance in the future.
Syllabi, Coursework, and Opportunities
If you have access to the syllabus and coursework for the class before you sign up to take it, look it over. You’ll get a better sense for the time demands of the course, and what types of things you’ll learn along the way. Depending on the course, you may also be able to find specific opportunities that may be available to you after taking the course. For example, the course description may imply that you’ll be able to get an entry-level position in a specific field after taking it, or may direct you to more advanced learning opportunities when you’re finished. These possibilities should add to your evaluation of the course’s prospective return on investment (ROI).
You won’t always have the opportunity to delve into the details of an online course before you start taking it, but it’s crucial to take those critical steps when you’re able. Online classes aren’t always worth the cost or time to take them, but they can also be incredibly valuable opportunities to progress your education. Learn to tell the difference, and you’ll never walk away disappointed.
Sylvia Kohl is an IT teacher with more than 8 years of professional experience. Her main spheres of interest are e-education and she convinced that learning process doesn’t stop after years in school and university.