Simple Tips on How College Students Get Motivated

April 24th, 2015

 

 By Oksana Sbitneva

Have you ever sat down surrounded by a bunch of books and stared at them until you fall asleep? You know there’s no time to put off the studying process but you just have neither will nor energy to read at least some words? You feel tired and emotionally exhausted and the material you have to search (and study as well) seems to be a really high mountain to climb? Or, who knows, maybe it’s the weather that puts you in a nostalgic mood and all you want is to get thickly muffled in a rug with a cup of herbal tea? Hopefully these simple ideas will help you to get motivated and get all those tasks done within the deadline.

Set Special Goals…the Realistic Ones!

If you start feeling slightly nervous when the question is about the amount of work you have to get done, make sure to set some realistic goals. Let’s say, you have got 11 000 words to write for your research paper. Divide the task into more manageable parts. Make certain to set an individual deadline for every segment of work. It is highly important to remember that while A+ is awesome, all you’re in need of is a pass! Just accept that one can’t do everything and try to work out what is really possible.

If you feel like this is not going to work out, do not hesitate to get help! Approach your college tutor for some professional learning guidance. What is more, there is always online assistance available for every student! Various Exact Science, Art, rush essays writing services representatives are ready to provide you with a helping hand. And make sure to ask for help sooner rather than later for the reason that there is always a certain deadline assigned with every task you get.

Please Yourself with Little Awards

It’s amazing how positive the effect of gratification can be! If you need to get urgently motivated to study, make sure to set a specific goal and think about the most suitable prize that you will get once the goal is completed. The technique is pretty simple but you will be astonished by its effectiveness! Through rewarding yourself, whenever the set goal is reached, your brain is diving into the positive emotions. This, in turn, makes you realize that a good effort results in a great reward.

Dance Your Inspiration Out

Music is a great way to wake your inspiration and motivation up, as well as bring some positive emotions down the way. If picked wisely, any song get you absolutely motivated to deal with the studying and provide you with the feeling that you can actually do anything.  Of course music is one of the simplest techniques to get motivation. However, you should be careful when choosing the right song. While some people can work listening to some good old ballads, the others prefer AC/DC or Marilyn Manson as the right background tune. Give preference to the songs that you find inspiring and motivating. They will 100% energize your whole body and ensure that impossible is nothing!

Nothing Lasts For Ever…Remember That!

There are many students that are overburden with the school and college tasks and feel like there will be no light at the end of the tunnel. They are about to throw in the towel in regards to the college. If you’re one of them, keep reminding yourself that it won’t last till the end of your days and all you have to do is to keep going.

Author’s bio:

Oksana is a  student of English literature department and a freelance journalist. As a current student she is interested in trends in education and she would like to share her experience with community.

You may contact Oksana via e-mail: oksana.sbitneva.1408@gmail.com

My Nominee For Best Book of Year on Universities

April 23rd, 2015

Arizona State announced today a credit bearing freshman year entirely on line. This is one of the many innovations by ASU President Michael Crowe

See also: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/04/22/arizona-state-edx-team-offer-freshman-year-online-through-moocs

But you need to read his book to get the full story on his innovative ideas and actions

Designing the New American University by Michael Crow and William B. Dabars

Arizona State University President Michael Crow and William Dabars, who is a senior research fellow at the New American University, examine the future evolution of the American research university by highlighting an institutional model committed to academic excellence, inclusiveness of a broad demographic, and maximum societal impact. This book is a guide to building the colleges and universities we need for the 21st century.

 

Tools and Resources for Students to Stay Organized in College

April 22nd, 2015

 

By Jane Hurst

As a college student, chances are that you have a lot going on in your life, and there are always things that you seem to forget to do. What you need are tools and resources to help you get better organized, and stay that way. Here are some of our top choices for organizational tools for college students.

  • Pocket – Use Pocket to keep track of your personal learning network (PLN). Bookmark articles so you can reference them later, add tags to articles to make them easy to find, and more. This lets you read the articles you want to read when you actually have the time to read them.
  • Quizlet – This free app is great for students who need help in their studies. In fact, over 20 million students are using this app to compile flashcards that will help them with their exams, and with their studies in general. Set things up so the cards come up in a certain order, or make them random to really test your knowledge.
  • Sunrise – This is an alternative to the calendar apps you are using now, or if you aren’t already using one, the best one for you to check out. The interface is crisp and clean, and it will integrate with many platforms, including iCloud, Microsoft Outlook, and Google Calendar. It will also connect with LinkedIn, Facebook, and many other apps.
  • Khan Academy – Here you will find free video libraries, as well as assessments and interactive challenges for students. This is also a great site for parents, teachers, and coaches to use so they can keep track of what students are actually learning.
  • Black Mold Removal – A lot of dorms are located in older buildings, and it’s not uncommon for these buildings to have sick building syndrome. Mold is one of the causes, which is bad for your health. It can lead to illness and breathing problems, which are going to make it more difficult for you to study and get good grades. To get rid of mold in your dorm, contact this service.
  • Voxer – This awesome walkie-talkie app is great because it allows you to connect with colleagues or your PLN so you can share information quickly and easily.
  • Coursera – This app lets you find free online courses from some of the best universities in the world. You will find a huge range of topics, from biology to math to computer science to humanities and a whole lot more. Whether you want to pad your resume, make a career move, or simply want to expand your knowledge, this is a great tool to use to help you find the courses you want.
  • Common Core – This tool offers the Common Core State Standards app from MasteryConnect that lets you see standards from your mobile devices. Enter keywords and search the standards, or tap the screen to jump between various study areas and grades. This is the official website of CCSS, and it makes it really easy to find information when you want it, without having to wade through a bunch of paperwork because you’ve printed out articles to read later on.
  • UDACITY – This comes from Stanford University, when they offered the free class, “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence”. There was so much interest in this class that UDACITY was created to provide courseware that is even more open.
  • Remember the Milk – This tool will ensure that you never forget to complete a task again. This app can be synced with your calendar and email, and you can use the prioritizing function to schedule your important tasks to be done. You will need to have an Internet connection to use this app, but it is free and available for all mobile platforms.

Byline:

Jane Hurst has been working in education for over 5 years as a teacher. She loves sharing her knowledge with students, is fascinated about edtech and loves reading, a lot.

High costs, uncertain benefits: What do Americans without a college degree think about postsecondary education?

April 21st, 2015

Andrew P. Kelly, AEI

Read Online Printable Copy

 

Key points

  • Many adults without a college degree aspire to some higher credential, but most overestimate the cost of higher education, which could deter them from furthering their education.
  • Many adults without a degree in our survey were uncertain as to the wage returns to different postsecondary pathways. Those who did offer estimates tend to see the bachelor’s degree as the most valuable credential and certificates as the least valuable.
  • Adults without a postsecondary degree do not always see the value in returning to school, and efforts to encourage education and training should clarify the benefits to various postsecondary pathways.

Read this publication online

View a printable copy

 

Should Community Colleges Offer 4 Year Degrees? : Am Overview Of The Issues And Status

April 20th, 2015
 From ECS In Denver
 

Community colleges expanded role into awarding bachelor’s degrees

Traditionally the domain of four-year institutions, a growing number of states now allow community colleges to award bachelor’s degrees as one strategy to meet workforce demands, address affordability and increase access to educational opportunities.

The expanded role of community colleges into the bachelor’s degree arena is not without controversy. Concerns center on the historically distinct missions of the two postsecondary sectors, competition with four-year institutions, duplication of programs and quality of the bachelor’s degrees conferred by community colleges, among others.

A new policy analysis from the Education Commission of the States examines state policies that allow community colleges to offer four-year degrees, summarizes arguments for and against these policies, and offers key policy considerations related to community college bachelors degree programs.

“As more states consider allowing community colleges to offer bachelor’s degrees to support workforce needs and education goals, they will have to weigh the pros and cons of this policy strategy,” said Mary Fulton, a policy analyst for the Education Commission of the States. “We identified several core elements included in these policies and also presented fundamental questions for state leaders to take into account.”

Some important takeaways from this report:

  • Twenty-three states allow community colleges to award bachelor’s degrees; in most states, however, only a few institutions offer the programs.
  • Community college bachelor’s degree programs are designed to meet local workforce needs and expand access to four-year degrees to a broad range of students.
  • States typically place limits on the type and number of bachelor’s degrees that community colleges can offer to avoid program duplication and competition with nearby four-year institutions.

For questions, contact ECS Director of Communications Amy Skinner at askinner@ecs.org or (303) 299.3609

 

 

New Longitudinal Study Of 10th Grade Postsecondary Attainment

April 17th, 2015

America’s Tenth Graders Postsecondary Degree Attainment is Focus of New NCES Longitudinal Dataset and First Look Report

This First Look introduces new data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, collected in 2012-2013 from postsecondary transcripts of students who were sophomores in 2002.The analyses presented in this First Look examine students’ educational attainment; coursetaking and major choice; degree completion; and credit accrual.

Findings of particular interest include: eighty-four percent of spring 2002 high school sophomores had at least some postsecondary enrollment as of the 2012-13 academic year.

Among those who did not attend a 4-year institution, 12 percent attained an associate’s degree, 16 percent attained an undergraduate certificate, and 71 percent did not earn a postsecondary credential.

Among those who did attend a 4-year institution, 59 percent attained a bachelor’s degree (or higher), 8 percent attained an associate’s degree, 3 percent attained an undergraduate certificate, and 31 percent did not earn a postsecondary credential.

To view the full report please visit http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2015034.

The Changing Ecology Of Higher Education

April 16th, 2015

By Carol Christ, UC Berkeley

Michael Kirst and Mitchell Stevens’ recent book, Remaking College: The changing ecology of higher education, asks nothing less than that we reconceive the character of American higher education.

They believe that our attention to elite colleges has led us to ignore the schools doing the lion’s share of undergraduate instruction – community colleges, comprehensive public universities and for-profit institutions.

Such attention has also blinded us to changes in patterns of early adulthood. Many students move in and out of college, integrating their education into complex personal and work lives. They are older, and they often attend school part-time.

By imagining the traditional college student as the norm – the student who goes to a residential college, away from home, immediately after graduating from high school, and who completes his or her degree in four full-time years – we distort the picture of American higher education and fail to attend adequately to the needs of the invisible majority of students.

The subtitle of Kirst and Stevens’ book – “the changing ecology of higher education” – is methodologically significant. They insist that higher education is an ecology – “as comprising myriad service providers, instructional and administrative labour, funders and regulators interacting in a messy system of educational production”.

They feel we must attend to this ecology if we are to make adequate sense of the enormous changes unsettling higher education. They are critical of the methodologies that social scientists have used to study higher education – cohort analysis, assuming linear models of students moving through college, models that fit well with an interest in social mobility and with linear regression analysis.

Even the traditional classification of colleges and universities, developed by the Carnegie Foundation and now reified in ranking systems such as US News & World Report, has a distorting impact, the book argues, as schools may have membership in a number of different categories.

Although there may be homogeneity among elite research universities, lower-tier broad access institutions have much more heterogeneity. Our classification system obscures these differences and even exerts a normative force.

Imagining the future

Remaking College is a collection of essays by a group of writers on higher education whom Kirst and Stevens assembled, with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to engage in a series of discussions on “the fate and future of US higher education at this moment in history”.

They chose the most provocative writers they could identify, regardless of field, and asked them to reimagine “how the study of college might be pursued in light of the seismic changes taking place in US higher education”.

Although attention to digital technologies is not absent from the book – indeed, one of its most provocative essays, by Anya Kamenetz, is entitled “DIY U”, about a future world in which students may be able to create their own degrees from online resources – this is not primarily a book about college in the cloud. Rather, it seeks to shift our attention to broad access institutions and the students who attend them.

Our attention to making the student bodies of elite colleges and universities more diverse, Regina Deil-Amen argues in her essay, excludes and makes invisible the realities of most non-traditional students with non-traditional pathways, thus narrowing the diversity agenda.

Invisible students

Kirst and Stevens address their book principally to scholars in the field of higher education. They call for a different research agenda, one that attends to the complexity and messiness of the higher education “system” in the United States, that seeks to understand how it is changing, and that focuses attention on the invisible majority of students and strategies to help them succeed. However, anyone interested in US higher education can learn much from this book.

Indeed, Kirst and Stevens raise the question of whether the greater public scrutiny devoted to higher education may lead to a kind of governmental intervention that has been more characteristically exercised in K-12 (primary and secondary education).

Kirst’s essay in this volume analyses the conditions that led to policy changes in K-12 and speculates about those that might lead to governmentally initiated changes in higher education.

Accreditation, Kirst and Stevens believe, is a weak coercive instrument; they wonder whether what they term a “policy window” may open for governmentally mandated policy changes in higher education.

For the prospective student coming from outside the United States, Remaking College gives a richer, fuller and more complex sense of the landscape of American higher education – the ecology as Kirst and Stevens term it. It thus may lead to a broader sense of choices, although this is not a book about college choice.

It also provides a fuller understanding of the space college occupies in adult lives, as one factor in a web of interdependencies.

“Lives today have irregular rhythms,” Richard Settersten Jr argues in his essay “The New Landscape of Early Adulthood”. Four-year institutions, in his view, are not the only route to a successful adulthood.

Perhaps international students, like domestic students, may take more advantage of “the most varied and flexible academic ecology the world has ever known”.

Carol Christ is director of the Center for Studies in Higher Education, or CSHE, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Job Searching:Where Should Graduates Start From?

April 15th, 2015

By Julie Petersen

 

Over the years, the job market has become more and more challenging to the freshly graduate students. Graduates are finding a hard time when it comes to getting their first time employment. According to the infographic about popular professions among grades, in addition to giving information about the most popular jobs, it also gives the stats about the challenge faced by graduate students in relation to their job search. Out of a possible 100%, only 50% managed to become employed on a full time basis.

How to get started   

A strategy is required when it comes to searching for a job whether you are looking for your first or the tenth job. You need to know where to start, acquaint yourself with the industries that are hiring and make the most of the different social media channels. The fact that the world’s economy is not currently at its best, jobs are becoming hard to find with time and it will only take those with the will power to succeed and the enthusiasm to push through to land on a lucrative job opportunity. Even with that said, the job market is not all desolate. If you come up with a good strategy to approach the job market, you’ll not only land a stimulating job but get one that is in line with your passion and interest. Preparations should start early enough; probably while on your last semester of college. This will get you psychologically prepared for the real world.    

a)    Focus on getting a job that will help you land a your dream job

If your attention is to entirely land your dream job, chances are that you might get frustrated along the way if in case it takes you longer than you hard anticipated. You need to start somewhere. While still having your dream job in mind, as a freshly graduate, you may want to consider lowering your expectations and land a job that will in turn springboard you to your dream job. This will not make or break your career but most certainly it will help you in the meantime. What you need to know is that choosing your first job is not an automatic indication of your future. Use that opportunity to explore the different fields and possibly build your network.

b)    Make arrangements to meet up with career services  

As a job seeker, you need to make this your top priority because these career services are a wealth of experience. These services can provide you with information regarding to internal job boards and self-assessment tests among others. Perhaps one of their most lucrative service which they offer is to link you with career experts who will you a lot when it comes to reviewing your CV, help you with your 90 second pitch, conduct mock interviews and help you to link up with your alumni.

c)     Establish your network

Anyone doing an active job search needs to consider everyone they interact with as a potential network source because you just never know where your conversation with them will take you. Whenever you get a chance, mention what you are thinking about to your peers, professors and even you fellow students. Failing to do so is a critical mistake that might cost you. To increase your chances of landing your first job after college, you need to establish your connections as early as possible. Use social media to find new contacts concerning your job search, where Linkedin is considered to be one of the most effective networks to establish connections.

d)    Pick a career

You need to know what you really want to pursue as your career so that it becomes easier for you to lay your foundation. If you feel sort of stuck over your career path, you might want to consider doing research on the companies and the roles you feel you are best suited for. After identifying this, you can then start building it. You need to build on your experience if you want to be successful with all your career goals.

These are basic but a few of the tips that can help a graduate student with their first job search. Besides the above, you also need to know how to write a captivating graduate CV, know how to draft a cover letter and know how to approach interviews.

Author’s Bio

Julie Petersen is a young blogger and writer, who features the latest educational and career trends in her writings. At present time she works at Essaymama.com as a writing consultant and a blog editor.

Why Colleges Should Care About Common Core

April 14th, 2015

BY Harold Levine and Michael Kirst For Education Week

Now that the Common Core State Standards in English/language arts and mathematics have been adopted in much of the country, states are busy with their implementation. We have no doubt that, over time, these new K-12 standards will produce larger numbers of college-ready (and career-ready) students—as promised. College-bound freshmen can expect to head off to their colleges of choice ready for the deeply engaging learning experiences that await them.

Or can they? We are concerned that the common-core learning experiences of these students can be a bridge to a more enriching educational experience only if the colleges and universities they are entering are ready for them. For the most part, we have doubts that they are.

Our observations and conversations with colleagues nationally indicate that, in general, higher education has only recently begun to appreciate the breadth of the potential impacts of the common core on their own practices, from admissions to instruction to student outcomes. In a recent letter to California’s state board of education, the leaders of all four public and private higher education segments wrote to affirm their support for the implementation of the common core: ”We believe California’s implementation of the common-core standards and aligned assessments has the potential to dramatically improve college readiness and help close the preparation gap that exists for California students.”

Such across-the-board, state-level higher education support for a set of K-12 standards makes history, certainly in California and quite likely in the nation. Even so, California is not alone in higher education in making a public commitment to the common core; the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities, and a new organization named Higher Ed for Higher Standards, among others, have signed on. The support seems to be growing, despite state and local politics around state standards and high-stakes assessments tied to accountability.

In fact, higher education is increasingly coming to focus on what many of the proponents of the common core had hoped would be the positive outcomes of its adoption for colleges and universities: the reduction of remediation and associated costs, the alignment of standards of the two systems, a way to benchmark the high school common-core assessments for admissions and placement purposes, and the opportunity to rethink the curricula used in teacher education programs.

“The common-core learning experiences of college-bound students can be a bridge to a more enriching educational experience only if the institutions they are entering are ready for them.”

It is also true that some faculty members are familiar with the common core because they had a role in shaping the standards. Others have a voice in their states in defining what “college readiness” means in the new assessments. And the research of many academicians was used both to identify college-ready knowledge and skills that would be central to the common core and to help construct new testing regimens consistent with the new standards. Finally, in some states—including California’s two- and four-year systems—faculty members are having a role in setting the criteria for course and subject-matter admissions requirements in English and mathematics that align with the common core.

So far, so good. But we have a different concern, one that stems from the historical disjuncture and lack of alignment between K-12 and higher education. As common-core implementation continues to expand and evolve in the K-12 system, how are the thousands of higher education faculty members who teach freshman and sophomore courses in English and mathematics (and the sciences, of course) preparing for their newly admitted students (roughly 3.3 million first-time freshmen projected for 2016), who will almost certainly have different expectations of what and how they learn and are taught? It is worrisome that we do not yet see the broad-based discussions, let alone planning initiatives, among either higher education leaders (including deans and department chairs) or, especially, their faculties and academic senates, to alter the curriculum or the pedagogy for all those introductory courses to take advantage of the new style of learning and teaching engendered by the common core.

An informed and engaged faculty is crucial to the success of common-core implementation. That’s why California was awarded a grant by the National Governors Association to focus on the role of higher education in this transition. The project has brought together representatives of the governor’s office, legislature, department of education, commission on teacher credentialing, and the four higher education systems to convene as a state team. The team identified a need for better communication with faculty members about the expectations for more rigor and instructional complexity within the standards, and assessment-system goals and expectations before institutions can begin to think seriously about the implications for placement; curricular alignment; and other complex, related matters.

What will be characteristic of common-core students entering college are learning experiences featuring more inquiry-based learning and collaborative problem-solving, sequenced skills by grade level and learning across the curriculum, and more hands-on work. In addition to the essential skills in math, students will focus on “conceptual” math, that is, understanding the reasoning behind the correct problem solution rather than the algorithm. They will also have experienced applying mathematical concepts to real-world problems, and will have been focused on fewer subject areas. Finally, students will be used to testing on computers and, in states with testing developed by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, testing that is adaptive.

These are not likely to be the skill sets or course-taking experiences called for in the majority of today’s college-level freshman and sophomore courses. Rather, these tend to be large-enrollment, minimally interactive, and textbook-based. For the sciences, there is likely to be a lab section, but as an adjunct to the lectures and where the experiments have known outcomes. Memorization of materials in the arts and sciences at the college level is critical to performing well on tests, as is performing procedures.

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The shortcomings of undergraduate instruction, particularly in the sciences, have been known and debated for some time. Such peerless professional organizations as the American Physical Society, the American Chemical Society, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences have all raised important questions about undergraduate teaching in their fields. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute has for a number of years sponsored a grant competition to try to change the trajectory of life sciences curricula and pedagogy. In a similar vein, the Mathematical Association of America and the American Mathematical Society have demonstrated interests in changing undergraduate teaching to make mathematics more accessible to students; both have formally supported the common core for mathematics. Finally, for the last several years, the annual conference of the Modern Language Association has had sessions that discuss how the common core will affect introductory college courses.

The support of all of these professional organizations, as well as foundations and government agencies such as the National Science Foundation, is critical to any changes in how undergraduate education is delivered. If leaders in the disciplines decry current teaching and curricular practices, there is a real likelihood for change and much-needed alignment with the common core’s principles.

We believe that with the support at the classroom level by university faculty and departments, and more concerted efforts toward the alignment of K-12 standards with higher education admission and “knowledge and skill” requirements, the common core that is implemented in our public K-12 schools will lead to a far more meaningful college learning experience for generations to come. It’s now time to ensure that when the common core creates more “college ready” students, the colleges they enter are ready for them—and what they know and don’t know, and how they have been taught to learn.

Harold G. Levine is the dean of the school of education at the University of California, Davis. Michael W. Kirst is the president of the California state board of education and a professor emeritus of education at Stanford University.

Discover the Reality of a Computer Science Major

April 13th, 2015

By Melissa Burns

 

Are you deciding whether it’s a good idea to study Computer Science in college in order to become a software developer? Are you thinking about majoring in this field? You will be surprises how different the particular area is from how it is described throughout the media. So, here’s a short guide on the reality of computer science major.

The Bruce Almighty Effect

One of the first issues that students are attracted to within the industry is that they can create something that will stay there for good. Second goes an understanding that a lot of people will be able to get access to. And finally, the feeling of being a teacher of a really stupid makes them feel god-like. The whole point is that computers are absolutely stupid. At the same time, they are exceptionally good at following the instructions. Moreover, they do everything from A to Z. If you know how to ‘communicate’ with the PC in its special language and you can make the machine do whatever you want, that’s truly precious.

You Decompose Everything. Here and Now.

Once you’re a computer science major, your skills of problem solving are getting better. No matter what is the nature of the task you receive or the issue you have to deal with, you make sure to break in down: what part of the job will take the most of your time? How can one effectively choose priorities in order to avoid wasting time? Actually, you should be ready to be the one that your parents will approach when they need the phones of TV to be fixed. And you, in turn, will deal with it as a software problem. You will define the main symptoms of the problem, understand how the whole system works and then find the right solution.

Software Development Is Nothing without Experiments.

The point is that experimentation is a key within the industry. You have to really get into the process, mess around with it. Sometimes it can lead to breaking something that worked perfectly before. However, the great thing about software development field is that in return, you will definitely master new skills. Of course, there are moments, when you feel like leaving everything and working in accordance with good old rules, but…don’t you think that it’s a lot better to try something new and then play around with it?

Doubts Here, Doubts There…

Being a major in the software development is pretty challenging and that is one of the reasons why so many people refuse to dive into it. You will most likely face with the everyday doubts regarding the accuracy of your decision. And when you see your little nephew doing the same, you will definitely be ready to give it up. But the truth is that no one likes to talk about all the difficulties for the reason that they do not want to even think about it. But that’s totally OK to cast doubts on your career choice, but remember – you will never get anywhere unless you try!

So, if you’re someone, who is pondering over the future in that or this software development company, make sure to just do it! Don’t mind everyone who tells you can’t cope with it! Haters gonna hate. But that is not going to stop you, is it? And you will 100% feel the thrill of getting something to work just because of your efforts, proficient knowledge and belief in yourself!

Author’s bio:

Melissa Burns graduated from the faculty of Journalism of Iowa State University in 2008. Nowadays she is an entrepreneur and independent journalist. Her sphere of interests includes startups, information technologies and how these ones may be implemented in the sphere of education. You may contact Melissa via e-mail: burns.melissaa@gmail.com

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